World Energy Outlook 2023

This new Outlook provides a strong evidence base to guide the choices that face energy decision makers in pursuit of transitions that are rapid, secure, affordable and inclusive. The analysis does not present a single view of the future but instead explores different scenarios that reflect current real-world conditions and starting points. The Stated Policies Scenario (STEPS) provides an outlook based on the latest policy settings, including energy, climate and related industrial policies. The Announced Pledges Scenario (APS) assumes all national energy and climate targets made by governments are met in full and on time. Yet, much additional progress is still required to meet the objectives of the Net Zero Emissions by 2050 (NZE) Scenario which limits global warming to 1.5 °C. Alongside our main scenarios, we explore some key uncertainties that could affect future trends, including structural changes in China’s economy and the pace of global deployment of solar PV.